The table below shows the results of how the three institutions understood what green management is:
Table 4.7.1: Green management definitions by the three institutions
Institution Definition of Green Management
UNZA Green management is the use of renewable resources
APEX Green management is an initiative aimed at continuously improving the foundation of environmental activities.
UNILUS Green management is environmentally friendly management, recycling, proper cleaning and sanitation.
Our data analysis indicated that executives responsible for decision-making regarding green management practices in the universities had different definitions of what green management is and how the perceive green practices towards their businesses. The results showed that the respondent from APEX saw green management as an initiative aiming at continuously improving the foundation of environmental activities, whilst the respondent form UNZA defined it as the use of renewable resources and finally the respondent from UNILUS defined green management as environmentally friendly management, recycling, proper cleaning and sanitation procedures. From the three definitions given by the respondents, the results show that each of the respondents did have an idea of what green management is. However of the three definitions given, the respondent from Apex gave the most correct answer and showed that APEX University despite being a small private, the institution had a better understanding of what green management is all about. However According to (Haden, Oyler, & Humphreys, 2009) Green management is the organization-wide process of applying innovation to achieve sustainability, waste reduction, social responsibility, and a competitive advantage via Continuous learning and development and by embracing environmental goals and strategies that are fully integrated with the goals and strategies of the organization.
The table below shows how the institutions perceive green practices and what challenges that the face in adopting those green practices:
Table 4.7.2: Reported green practices adopted by the Institutions
Institution Green Practice motivation Challenge
UNZA Reuse of envelops Helps in cost reduction non
APEX Waste disposal To prevent pollution of the institution and stops the university from closing. Failure of the contractor to pick up the garbage on time
UNILUS Waste disposal
To bring about cleanliness and sanitation and help avoid break out of diseases -The university is highly crowded making it hard to maintain the place especially when you have less man power
The research also showed that the institutions adopted different green practices depending on their perception towards these practices. The institutions look at what practices can benefit their businesses and analyze what challenges those practices can bring and if the can handle those challenges or not. The considered multiple motives for engaging in environmental green, conforming to institutional pressures and expectations and ZEMA environmental laws and standards. The study showed that UNZA engaged in reuse as one of its green practices by reusing envelops and the major motivation for them choosing this practice is cost reduction. Apex indicted that the used waste disposal as one of their green practices and the reason why the use the practice is to avoid pollution of the environment, as pollution would can have a bad effect on their business and even lead to a closure of the university. Another motivation has been environments as well as encourage a clean environment and the major challenge in following up with this practice has failure of the contractor to collect the garbage on time. And finally the university under the case study UNILUS mentioned quite a number of practices that the saw as green practices namely; Waste disposal, usage of sanitation buckets in ladies bathrooms, usage of environmentally friendly cleaning chemicals, wearing safety gear when cleaning and having a separate sewage line for the kitchen that is not connected to the other parts of the university. UNILUS carries out these practices because of their perception that such practices will bring about cleanliness and sanitation and avoid breakout of diseases which will benefit their business. From the results it showed that the institutions chose to engage in only a few green practices and never to a larger extent, for instance the reuse of envelops UNZA talked about was reusing envelops as storage fills on their office desks once a letter has been received. Institutions will only engage in certain practices depending on what benefits it would bring to them and not more on simply trying to make improve the status of the environment. Institutions only showed interest in adopting green practices when the environmental benefits are perceived to create private benefits from which the consumer either exclusively, or directly and personally benefits from, rather than public goods that benefit society as a whole (Ottman, 1992; Gallagher and Kennedy, 1997; Marcus, 2001).
The table below shows results of the environmental policies adopted by the universities:
Table 4.7.3: Environmental policies adopted
Institution Policy Policy Avail. Contents Of Policy
UNZA Procurement Yes Unknown
Reuse Yes Reuse of envelops
Recycle No Nil
Energy No Nil
APEX Procurement Yes Procure goods that are sustainable and environmentally friendly
Reuse No Nil
Recycle No Nil
Energy No Nil
UNILUS Procurement Yes Unknown
Reuse Yes Reuse of furniture
Energy Yes Usage of energy bulbs, adopters, power search protectors and other energy saving appliances
The data analyzed also contained information on the type of policies being used by the institution and to see if they have any environmentally friendly policies. The results were driven from analyzing if the institution has an environmentally friendly purchasing policy, a reuse policy and a recycling policy. The results showed that all three universities had purchasing policies although only APEX was able to state what environmentally friendly policy is being used. The APEX respondent stated that their institution is into procuring goods that are sustainable, economical, profitable and environmentally friendly. The failure of the two institutions to clearly state what purchasing policy is being used failed to give the researcher a proper insight into what materials are being used by the school, however when feather asked on whether or not their suppliers are green or not all institutions where not very sure if their suppliers were green. This could mean that the institutions did not really prioritize the buying of environmentally friendly chemicals as they were not sure if their goods were environmentally friendly or if their suppliers were even green themselves and no effort was made by the institutions to double check the products or the suppliers. What the institutions failed to see is that a green purchasing policy can shape production and consumption trends and a significant demand from public authorities for “greener” products will create or enlarge markets for environmentally friendlier products and services (Li and Geiser, 2005). Government also has a major role to play in order for this to take place because according to Rüdenauer (2007) public authorities have the real power to help move eco-products into mainstream. Additionally, this gives producers real incentives to pursue innovative solutions.
When it came to analyzing the other three policies the results indicated that two out of the three organisations did have a reuse policy but none of them had a recycling policy. The reason for UNZA and UNILUS adopting a reuse policy has been for budget control and cost reduction purposes. UNZA reuses envelops as part of their reuse policy whilst UNILUS reuses furniture. Reuse is on the most noticeable green practices as it helps to reduce on the extraction of raw materials. The results also showed that institutions failed to engage in recycling as the saw it to be an expense, as institutions would have to purchase different bins for different waste materials such as plastic, paper, glass and bio degradable. When it came the analysis on their energy policies only UNILUS had an energy policy which the implemented by using energy saving appliances because of the proved to have a longer life span, use less energy. The results proved that UNILUS is more conscious on how the use energy in comparison to their fellow private university APEX.
The institutions were also finally asked if there are suggestions that have in order to make the university green. The results then showed that UNZA suggested using technology to find suppliers rather than having stuff physically move up and down in order to find suppliers, whilst APEX suggested the need to adopting green management policy and finally UNILUS suggested adopting a recycling program. UNILUS was further asked as to why they have not adopted a recycling program yet and why there was no green management system at the university. The results showed that UNILUS university thinks it is too small to adopt certain green practices such a s recycling and it was also proved that there had been many suggestions and proposals to have a green management system but such proposals where not followed through as such practices were perceived to have a cost on the business, for example the institution will have to buy separate bins for different types of garbage. However this research proved that space is not a factor because despite UNZA being a large university they too have not engaged in any recognizable green practices. The results also showed that the stuff at UNILUS have very little knowledge about green practices and how to implement them.